Category Archives: Criminology And Penology

What do you mean by Recidivism? What are the causes of Recidivism? What are the measures which may be suggested for suppressing recidivism?

Meaning of Recidivism – Recidivism means the commission of the crime by habitual offenders.
According to Lombroso’s Theory of Born Criminal, some people are born criminal. They cannot abstain themselves from committing a crime due to their peculiar physical traits and mental condition.
Essentials of Recidivism – The following are the main elements of recidivism —–
1) Frequent commission of crime.
2) Act of recidivism by those who had already been convicted for some offence.
3) The frequent commission of crime habitually like other routine works.
4) Recidivism has no connection with physical or mental capacity of other offender.
5) Recidivist or habitual offenders do not fear from law or society.
Causes of Recidivism – Prof. Sutherland attributes two major causes for recidivism, namely—–
1) Social Psychology of the Offender – According to Prof. Sutherland, urbanized regions are more conductive to recidivism than rural areas. The living in rural areas is comparatively cheaper and simple and offers lesser chances for criminality. According to him, men are more recidivistic than women because of their dominating social status in the society.
Continued isolation of inmate from normal society due to long stay in prison renders him unfit for a normal life after release. He finds no charm in free life and prefers a routine life of a prison to which he is accustomed to.
Another cause of recidivism is to be found that criminal by reason of his criminal trait forms associations and devotes to loyalties and attitudes which tend to persist in the criminal world.

That apart, continuous association of the offender with a particular criminal group inculcates a sense of faithfulness, devotion and loyalty in him for them.

Persons who are involves in their business routine as hoarding, smuggling, black-marketing, racketeering, tax-evasion, bribery, fraud and infringement of trade marks, copyrights and patents etc. are some of the examples of crimes.

2) Inadequacy of Reformative Techniques – The large number of failures in parole, probation and reformatories certainly reflect upon the ineffectiveness of correctional methods in cases of hardened and habitual offenders. In the present , where unemployment, poverty, and edonomic depressions are rampant, many persons feel homely in prison for at least two square meals a day.

Measures of Suppressing Recidivism – Some of the measures for suppressing recidivism are as follows —–
1) Provision be Made in Penal System for Rehabilitation of Recidivists.
2) Recidivists be kept under strict security.
3) To give proper aftercare treatment.
4) Summary trials should be provided for securing conviction of Recidivists.

What do you mean by Juvenile delinquency? What acts have been declared as Juvenile delinquency? What are the causes of Juvenile delinquency? What are the remedies for prevention of Juvenile delinquency?

Juvenile delinquents are minors, usually defined as being between the ages of 10 and 18, who have committed some act that violates the law. These acts aren’t called “crimes” as they would be for adults. Rather, crimes committed by minors are called “delinquent acts.” Instead of a trial, the juvenile has an “adjudication,” after which she receives a “disposition” and a sentence. However, juvenile proceedings differ from adult proceedings in a number of ways.

Delinquent acts generally fall into two categories. The first type of delinquent act is one that would be considered a crime had an adult committed it. For particularly serious crimes, some jurisdictions will even try children as adults. When children are tried as juveniles, on the other hand, parents are often required to pay the court costs for the child.

The second type of delinquent act is one that wouldn’t normally be a crime had an adult performed it. These are typically known as “age-related” or “status” crimes. The most common examples of age-related crimes are staying out past curfew and “truancy,” which is the continued failure to attend school.

Juvenile Delinquency: Early Detection and Intervention

As you can see, juvenile delinquency is more than mischievous pranks such as doorbell ditching or throwing water balloons at your neighbor. Some of these offenses can be quite serious, such as drug-related offenses or even property crimes or crimes against another person. Delinquency prevention and intervention efforts primarily are comprised of identifying the risk factors that contribute to delinquency, addressing those factors early, and building on protective factors to offset the risks.

There are a growing number of non-profit programs designed to assist youth and help guide them to a better path. Such organizations as Big Brother, Big Sisters can provide mentoring and positive role models for at-risk youth. If your son or daughter is getting caught up in a series of juvenile deliquency acts, consider reaching out to one of these organizations to learn more.

Meaning of Juvenile Delinquency —-
1) According to Paul Tappan – It is an act, course of conduct of situation which might be brought before a court and adjudicated whether in fact, it comes to be treated there or by some other resources or indeed remains untreated.
2) According to Cyril Burt – A child is delinquent when his anti-social tendencies appear too grave that he becomes the subject of official action.
3) According to “Siddique” and “Section 2(J) of Children Act, 1960” – It is an act prohibited by law for children upto prescribed age limit is Juvenile delinquency and child found to have committed an act of Juvenile delinquency by a court is a Juvenile delinquent.

 Acts Declared by Law as Juvenile Delinquency —
1. Violation of any Ordinance or law
2. Engaging in illegal occupation
3. Knowingly association with vicious or immoral persons
4. Patronizing, visiting, policyshop or gambling.
5. Habitually wandering about rail road, tracks and yards
6. Incorrigible
7. Absenting from home without permission
8. Loitering and sleeping in all up
9. Beggary or receiving alms
10. Smoking cigarettes around public place
11. Habitually using obscene or vulgar language in public place
12. Immoral or indecent conduct
13. Crossing up in idleness or crime
14. Immoral conduct around school
15. Wandering in streets at night without any purpose
16. Entering in cars without any authority or jumping on the trains
17. Patronizing saloon or dranshop or at liquor shop
18. Knowingly visiting or entering into ill reputed houses
19. Frequent company of any refuted thereof
20. Living, lodging or residing in the house or part of house which is used for prostitution.

 Causes of Juvenile Delinquency —-
1. Adolescence Instability – The biological, psychological and sociological factors are important in adolescent behavior. Puberty or physical maturity is also an important factor. The child in this age wants to maintain his own identity, fashions, dress, language, dance, food and play are also attractions of this age. The problem becomes more when the adolescents are not kept in containment and their growth is not chased.
2. Uncongenial Home – The way the child is nursed is very important throughout his life and not only during the immaturity of age. The families where the parents indulge in undesirable activities, have undesirable and corrupting impact on immature mind.
3. Associational Impact – The associational impact on the child is very important. If he falls in bad association, he starts to behave accordingly and it is difficult for him to come out of it.
4. Sex Indulgence – The persons who have sex experience in their childhood become more tempted to it day by day. The homo-sexuality or hetro-sexuality both are dangerous at this stage. Too much sex avarice may lead the boys towards the crimes of kidnapping and rapes etc.
5. Movie – The movies are dominated by the theme of sex and violence. Youngsters adopting the short-cut methods the richness and influence may come in their lives and the actual consequences of misdeeds may fail to influence mind.
6. Failure in the School Life – Some children may not be mentally prepared to go to school. They may pass their school time at some other place. The poor schooling is also responsible for the boys to think that there is no use of going to school.
7. Poverty – Poverty is a cause of juvenile delinquency. When the children see others enjoying the life with comforts, the desire to have these things by hook or crook develops giving birth to delinquency.
8. Irresistible Impulse – During the childhood, the impulse is generally not subject to easy self-control. He does not understand to avoid the matters of petty issues and he may quarrel on trivial things.
 Remedies for Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency —-
1. To provide compulsory and free education to children – Education must be made compulsory and free of cost to all children.
2. To provide correctional homes for Orphans – The children who are orphans or homeless, should be sent to the correctional homes.
3. To provide Healthy Entertainment to Juvenile – Healthy entertainment like good films, good books and literature be provided to the children so that they get good lesson and moral education.
4. Duties of Juvenile Courts to look into the Family Backgrounds of Delinquents – Juvenile courts must look into the family backgrounds, character, past history and the company in which the delinquent lives.
5. To organize seminars and conferences – Various seminars and conferences of the criminologists, psychologists and other social workers be organized to discuss the various problems connected with juvenile delinquency and to find out some concrete solution to prevent them.
6. Government must Incorporate Suggestions in existing laws – Govt. should look into this problem seriously. The suggestions given by the experts of this subject should be incorporated in the existing laws and statutes to prevent juvenile delinquency.