What is fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence) ?

What is fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence) ?

What is fiqh  (Islamic Jurisprudence) ?

1. The word fiqh is an Arabic term meaning “true/deep understanding” or “full comprehension”.The word faqih means a person of knowledge and understanding.
2. But in Islamic terms fiqh is described as the human attempt to understand divine law (shariah). as revealed in the Quran and the Sunnah and implemented by the rulings (fatwa) of jurists.
3. Thus Fiqh is making rulings and judgements from evidence found in the Shariah, that is, the Quran and Sunnah, and from consensus of Islamic scholars.
4. Fiqh expands and developes Shariah through interpretation (ijtihad) of the Quran and Sunnah by Islamic jurists (ulama) and is implemented by the rulings (fatwa) of jurists on questions presented to them. Thus, whereas sharia is considered immutable and infallible by Muslims, fiqh is considered fallible and changeable
5. But Fiqh does not override Shariah. Fiqh is used to create laws for matters not specifically addressed by the Shariah.
6. Fiqh is a Islamic jurisprudence; i.e., the science of ascertaining the precise terms of the Shariah, or Islamic law. The collective sources of Muslim jurisprudence are known as uṣūl al-fiqh.
7. Fiqh deals with the observance of rituals, morals and social legislation in Islam. Fiqh is a section of Islamic law which deals with acts of Muslim, that includes both worship and daily life actions. Islamic jurisprudence or fiqh illustrates Islamic Law for Acts of Worship such as Prayer, Zakat, Fasting, Hajj, and Purification.
8. Conclusion: Fiqh is a huge collection of juristic opinions that were given by various jurist from multiple schools of thought, in regards to the application of Shariah to their real-life situations.
9. The historian Ibn Khaldun describes fiqh as “knowledge of the rules of God which concern the actions of persons who own themselves connected to obey the law respecting what is required (wajib), sinful (haraam), recommended (mandūb), disapproved (makrūh) or neutral (mubah)”.This definition is consistent amongst the jurists.
10. In Modern Standard Arabic, fiqh has come to mean jurisprudence in general, be it Islamic or secular.
11. In the modern era, there are four prominent schools (madhhab) of fiqh within Sunni practice, plus two (or three) within Shia practice. A person trained in fiqh is known as a faqīh (plural fuqaha).


Leave a Reply