What do you mean by Recidivism? What are the causes of Recidivism? What are the measures which may be suggested for suppressing recidivism?
Category : Criminology And Penology
Meaning of Recidivism – Recidivism means the commission of the crime by habitual offenders.
According to Lombroso’s Theory of Born Criminal, some people are born criminal. They cannot abstain themselves from committing a crime due to their peculiar physical traits and mental condition.
Essentials of Recidivism – The following are the main elements of recidivism —–
1) Frequent commission of crime.
2) Act of recidivism by those who had already been convicted for some offence.
3) The frequent commission of crime habitually like other routine works.
4) Recidivism has no connection with physical or mental capacity of other offender.
5) Recidivist or habitual offenders do not fear from law or society.
Causes of Recidivism – Prof. Sutherland attributes two major causes for recidivism, namely—–
1) Social Psychology of the Offender – According to Prof. Sutherland, urbanized regions are more conductive to recidivism than rural areas. The living in rural areas is comparatively cheaper and simple and offers lesser chances for criminality. According to him, men are more recidivistic than women because of their dominating social status in the society.
Continued isolation of inmate from normal society due to long stay in prison renders him unfit for a normal life after release. He finds no charm in free life and prefers a routine life of a prison to which he is accustomed to.
Another cause of recidivism is to be found that criminal by reason of his criminal trait forms associations and devotes to loyalties and attitudes which tend to persist in the criminal world.
That apart, continuous association of the offender with a particular criminal group inculcates a sense of faithfulness, devotion and loyalty in him for them.
Persons who are involves in their business routine as hoarding, smuggling, black-marketing, racketeering, tax-evasion, bribery, fraud and infringement of trade marks, copyrights and patents etc. are some of the examples of crimes.
2) Inadequacy of Reformative Techniques – The large number of failures in parole, probation and reformatories certainly reflect upon the ineffectiveness of correctional methods in cases of hardened and habitual offenders. In the present , where unemployment, poverty, and edonomic depressions are rampant, many persons feel homely in prison for at least two square meals a day.
Measures of Suppressing Recidivism – Some of the measures for suppressing recidivism are as follows —–
1) Provision be Made in Penal System for Rehabilitation of Recidivists.
2) Recidivists be kept under strict security.
3) To give proper aftercare treatment.
4) Summary trials should be provided for securing conviction of Recidivists.